The Internet of Things has emerged as a set of technologies from Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), that provide the capabilities to sense, actuate with and communicate over the Internet.
Nowadays, an IoT device can be an electronic device from a wearable to a hardware development platform and the range of applications where it can be used encompass many areas of the society.
Uniquely identifiable nodes are essentially just primary sensors that communicate without human interaction using different connectivity methods. With the addition of smart contracts and the blockchain, interaction-automation processes have never been faster or easier.
Helium is a decentralized, open wireless network built on a new blockchain for the physical world. It relies on a novel type of work called Proof of Coverage, and a new consensus algorithm (based on HoneyBadger BFT). The Helium Network is used to route data for long-range, lower power IoT devices that use Helium's LongFi protocol.
IOTA is transaction settlement and data transfer layer for the Internet of Things (IoT). It's distributed ledger, the Tangle, is based on a data structure referred to as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). In the Tangle there are no blocks or miners, and every transaction on the Iota network must validate two previous transactions through a small proof-of-work (PoW).